Learning From Link

Authors

Abstract

The paper provides an overview of the FDTL funded LINK project (‘linking teaching and research in selected Built Environment disciplines’) run by Oxford Brookes between 2000 and 2004. The learning process inherent in the project; what was learned about the LINK; its generic applicability beyond the Built Environment disciplines; and the importance of institutional support in embedding the LINK in the student experience are considered. The paper also explains how a shift in project focus from educational development to pedagogic research occurred as the extent of the gaps in understanding what it means to link teaching and research became clear.

 

Bridget Durning and Marion Temple, School of the Built Environment, Oxford Brookes University

Introduction

Oxford Brookes University’s current Academic Plan includes the commitment ‘to develop its understanding of the linkages between teaching, learning and research, and to incorporate that understanding into its teaching and research portfolios so that 90% will have an explicit link by 2006.’ This strong commitment is, at least in part, the outcome of the successful ‘LINK’ project undertaken at Brookes. This paper focuses upon that project and so should be of interest to all readers who would like to know more about the ‘teaching-learning-research’ nexus and develop that ‘explicit link’.

In order to offer an overview of the LINK project we consider:

  • What is LINK?
  • How have we learned about the LINK?
  • What have we learned about the LINK?
  • What are we doing about it?
  • Where are we going next?

We hope that this information about the project will both be informative and stimulate interest in, and discussion of, the topic across a wider range of disciplines.

What is Link?

LINK is the abbreviated title of a project undertaken by four post-1992 UK universities (Oxford Brookes, Sheffield Hallam, University of Westminster and the University of the West of England) between 2000 and 2004, into the ‘what, where and how’ of linking teaching and research. While the project was centred upon the disciplines of town and country planning, land and property management, and building, it has wider applicability to other disciplines. The project was funded through the Fund for the Development of Teaching and Learning (FDTL) which is sponsored by the funding councils for England (HEFCE) and Northern Ireland (DEL). The project was originally funded for three years with an additional year of ‘continuation’ funding. The original aims of the project focused on the development of teaching and learning and where to identify examples of good practice; develop guidelines on how to link teaching with research and consultancy in the Built Environment disciplines in which it was primarily based; disseminate the findings through Built Environment departments, cognate disciplines and wider institutions. By doing this, the project aimed to enhance the learning experience of students through embedding good practice in curriculum design, organisation structure and enhanced pedagogic methods. The project therefore clearly started life as an educational development project. However, it soon became clear that we needed to undertake research in order to better understand the issues. This research (discussed further in the following sections) led us to clarify our understanding of what it meant to integrate or ‘link’ teaching and research, and to consider further the student learning in this context. It also took us from a starting-point of identifying good practice in curriculum design to considering the institutional strategies that facilitate the ‘link’. The LINK project ultimately engaged with the teaching-research link at three levels: the strategic institutional level; at the School and Department level; and through implementation at the curriculum level.

How have we learned about the Link?

While there is a large amount of existing literature on the link (or nexus) between teaching and research (see Jenkins et al, 2003), much of this literature is largely statistical and focuses on the quality of individual academics. At the start of the LINK project, we realised this literature lacked a perspective on the understanding of the nature of the link. We considered this understanding on the nature of linking teaching and research was needed before we in the project would be able to identify ways to strengthen it. To this end we decided to run a number of focus groups in our consortium departments. The aims of these focus groups were: to gain an understanding of how staff saw the nature of the link in these disciplines, departments and institutions; identify the existing departmental strategies and factors which enabled the link; and to identify examples of practice. Five focus groups were held in the four consortium institutions in November and December 2000 using a common format and a common set of questions developed in a briefing note (Project LINK, 2000) to ensure confidence and consistency in the outcome. The focus groups have been analysed by one of the authors and details are available in Durning (2002) and a forthcoming paper by Durning and Jenkins. The analysis of the focus groups showed that an average of 28% of the discussion was on what it meant to link teaching and research (see Table 1). As one focus group participant said:

‘there are lots of different things that we may call research and it may be that they relate to the teaching and learning process in different ways’ (Durning and Jenkins, in submission).

The focus groups demonstrated to us that the issues are immensely complex. Before being able to identify ways to enhance and develop the link between teaching and research, there has to be an understanding of the nature of research in the discipline and the ways in which staff and students engage in that research. Both can be learners from and partakers in the research process, but how is it achieved in that discipline? Identifying examples of good or effective practice in curriculum design would be difficult if there was not one particular definable aspect through which it could be clearly said ‘This is what it means to link teaching and research in the Built Environment’.

It was this realisation that led to a shift in the project from one of educational development to one of educational research and the members of the LINK project embarked on a learning process into understanding the nature of the link between teaching and research in the Built Environment disciplines. After approximately eighteen months, the LINK project members came together and held a focus group facilitated by an educational developer which aimed to explore our developed understanding of what it meant to link teaching and research. Our understanding at this stage is described in Griffiths (in press). Griffiths clarifies how we had moved on in our understanding of how the definition of research can vary:

‘the precise meaning and weight given to them [basis definitions of research] varies widely, according to the particular field of inquiry and the outlook of a given community of investigators,’ (Griffiths, in press, p. 9)

to needing to look to a broader definition of ‘modes of knowledge production’ and draw on the work of others such as Brew (2001), Gibbons (1994) and Boyer (see References). Looking at the various modes of knowledge production in disciplines Griffiths observes

‘one [mode] that characterises the applied or vocational fields, which include the Built Environment disciplines along with such other fields as law, business studies, social policy, health care, engineering and education is that they are oriented not towards knowledge and understanding for their own sake, but towards the use of knowledge and understanding in addressing conflicts, tackling problems and meeting the needs of clients or other groupings. In this they all, to a greater or lesser extent, make use of knowledge derived from other modes of knowledge production, such as the natural sciences and social sciences (p. 11) From the perspective of the empirical science community, this dependence on other fields of study can give applied fields of inquiry a rather eclectic, derivative quality (p. 12) … But what has been underlined by work on the LINK project is that knowledge production in applied fields is not merely derivative. It is not just a pale, underdeveloped version of knowledge production in established “rigorous” disciplines. One way of describing the business of practice-based disciplines is to say that they are concerned with sustaining a productive interaction between explicit knowledge and implicit knowledge, and between knowledge and values.(p. 12)’

With a clearer understanding, therefore, of what is the nature of research (or knowledge production) in the discipline is it possible to define ways in which the teaching or student learning can be integrated into the process. Griffiths goes on to define four models for the teaching-research nexus:

  • Research-led
  • Research-orientated
  • Research-based
  • Research-informed

As Griffiths states:

‘It is entirely possible that the influence of each of these types of interaction, or nexus, between research and teaching together can be found in all disciplinary fields. But work on the LINK project suggests strongly that their applicability is likely to vary according to the discipline context.’ (p. 22)

In summary therefore, we moved beyond empirical evidence to investigate the nature of scholarship in relation to the advancement, synthesis and application of knowledge. Consideration of models of learning, teaching and knowledge transfer enabled us to focus upon active student learning so that knowledge is transformed through the learning process. Hence the learning activities of staff through staff research may be brought into closer interaction with the learning activities of students through staff teaching.

The learning process for the LINK team members continued through the course of the project. In September 2003, the project hosted an international conference where sixty delegates from nine countries came together to share practice and engage in debate on the nature of the link in the Built Environment disciplines. In addition to papers from the three ‘core disciplines’ of the project, papers were also presented from the disciplines of architecture, landscape architecture and civil engineering. The conference was therefore another important milestone in our learning process as it confirmed the nature and relevance of the link in those Built Environment disciplines not involved in the original project. The papers delivered at the conference are available from the project LINK website.

What have we learned about the Link?

The overriding lesson learned from our exploration of the link between teaching and research in the Built Environment is therefore one of complexity. Teaching research relations are far more diverse – and therefore indeed richer and more interesting – than was envisaged at the beginning of the project. This diversity means that we have considered teaching-research relations from a variety of perspectives some, but not all, of which have been further explored during the course of the project.

Delivering the curriculum

This highlights the ways in which the diversity underlying the project investigation quickly became apparent. At an early stage of the project, we looked for examples of good practice in relation to linking teaching and research in module delivery and some of these are to be found on the project website ( www.brookes.ac.uk/link ). It soon became apparent that:

Effective teaching-research relations at module level were at least partly dependent both upon facilitative curriculum design and conducive learning, teaching and assessment strategy at programme level.

These programme level conditions were themselves dependent upon an encouraging environment in the host department, as evidenced through its structures, processes and strategies (Zetter, 2002).

In turn, departmental support was more likely to be forthcoming where institutional policies were effectively designed to stimulate and incentivise teaching-research links (Gibbs, 2002).

The project therefore placed the curriculum link in the wider framework of programme, departmental and institutional processes and strategies.

Professional education

Without implying that other education is unprofessional, it is true that much Built Environment education is designed to educate those students who will become the future members of the core Built Environment professions. This overtly professional dimension means that the learning offer is informed by the requirements of the accrediting professional bodies and the professional employers.

The nature of the teaching-research link in this context is explored in detail in relation to land and property management at Oxford Brookes by Dent and Temple (2003). Dent and Temple argue in favour of a curriculum and pedagogy that enable staff research to inform staff teaching and student learning. This hastens the transfer of research to professional practice through the medium of the student’s learning. Research activity then becomes close to professional practice rather than being remote in a university “ivory tower”. As we see below, the interactions between research, teaching and professional practice appear to be both positive and fundamental: a conclusion that is applicable to all professionally-oriented education and not confined to the Built Environment.

Disciplinary distinctiveness

The focus groups held with academics early in the project investigation highlighted the differences among the individual disciplines, with the construction management, planning and real estate management academics emphasising the particularities of their own disciplines with relation to teaching-research links. Such disciplinary distinctiveness is unsurprising in view of the strong identities and cultures associated with the individual subjects and their associated professional bodies.

A further distinction emerged during the study as it became increasingly clear that the pedagogy of planning was well-researched while, in contrast, that of real estate management was characterised by a paucity of relevant existing research and evidence.

This disciplinary distinctiveness makes it unlikely that a single route will prove equally suitable to all disciplines in moving forward to link teaching and research. This diversity is currently reflected in the different approaches being adopted by different subjects at Brookes in their responses to linking teaching and research in their newly semesterised programmes. Distinctiveness and diversity are to be valued – but this is not to suggest that we should not all be moving in the same direction.

Teaching, research and professional practice

We learned that a further diverse aspect of linking teaching and research in the Built Environment disciplines arose from the inextricable links between teaching-research-practice and consultancy in professional education. Our research endorsed the conclusion that ‘students, teachers and professionals in the workplace are all learners and researchers (Webster, 2002). Much academic research in these disciplines is applied research of relevance to practice; much consultancy and practice yields evidence of relevance to academic research.

Further, a normative approach to research can equip students with the research and information management skills that they will require for professional employment in the knowledge economy.

‘Pedagogy should focus upon the student’s learning and upon the ways in which research-active staff and consultancy-active staff can enable students to acquire knowledge related skills rather than solely to acquire knowledge.’ (Temple, 2004)

This is important because today the pace of change is such that knowledge is ephemeral. Students therefore require knowledge management skills if they are to be able to keep up to date in their professional practice.

A further finding of the Link project therefore was that the teaching-research link can become a vehicle for enhancing graduate employability in today’s information-rich economy. For the professional disciplines, this is closely related to practice. However the relevance of research and information management skills to student employability is pertinent for all disciplines.

Overall, as academics, we have learned that the knowledge and skills learned by our students can be enriched by research and, crucially, that the nature of this relationship is richer and more complex than we understood at the inception of the project. Earlier research had demonstrated that students value learning from research-active staff. The Link project extended this understanding to assert that students benefit from exposure to research processes and skills.

Towards the end of the project, we produced a summary of our understanding of what it means to link teaching and research. This summary consisted of fifteen key points, termed ‘Fifteen Points from LINK’ (see Table 2). It highlights the generic points as well as identifying what is unique about the nature of the link in Built Environment disciplines.

What are we doing about it at Brookes?

The LINK project has provided a valuable stimulus to the four post-1992 universities directly involved in the project, in particular in the way that the project has generated significant discussion of the nature of research and its relationship to student learning, as evidenced by the sources cited in our References and the additional material to be found on the project website. This discussion has been timely, given the wider debate as to the missions of these universities in the changing world of UK higher education at the beginning of the new century. One unanticipated direction of the project research was our investigation into the role and importance of institutional support in embedding the LINK, if it was to be effectively embedded in the student experience.

We have been fortunate to have the support of the University’s senior management in this regard, as demonstrated by the inclusion of the linking of teaching and research in the criteria for the reapproval of academic programmes during the process of re-design necessitated by the semesterisation of our programme delivery. We hope that the evidence from our research project will provide the confidence and stimulus for a wider embedding of the LINK by colleagues in other disciplines during the re-design process currently being undertaken at Brookes. We are confident that our research does have wider applicability beyond those Built Environment disciplines involved in the initial research: confidence that is reflected in our proposed next steps for the project.

Where are we going next?

The LINK project was originally funded for three years (2000-2003). At the end of that period we had, we believe, been successful in what we aimed to do and have enhanced the link in the four consortium institutions and five further institutions who were engaged in the project as ‘cascade’ partners. Between 2003-2004, we are undertaking a ‘continuation’ period in which we aim to enhance the work we have done in the previous three years by producing a book from the conference and engaging the three professional bodies allied to the original disciplines (their accreditation of the courses as professional bodies can form a strategy for requiring the enhancement of the link to demonstrate improvement in the student learning). We also aim to disseminate the outputs of the project more widely into non-cognate disciplines. We will be working with one additional discipline (hospitality, tourism and leisure at Oxford Brookes, law at Sheffield Hallam, psychology at the University of Westminster, and health care and practice at the University of the West of England) in each of the four institutions to transfer the generic findings of the project into these subject areas. We are also providing funding for the Learning and Teaching Support Network Subject Centre for the Built Environment (Centre for Education in the Built Environment – CEBE) to take forward work on the nature of the link in architecture. They will report their conclusions in early 2005.

At the time of writing (April 2004), the LINK project is therefore nearly finished. It has moved forward our understanding of the link between teaching and research and demonstrated applicability well beyond the Built Environment subjects that were the core of its study. We hope that this report upon the project and its research will stimulate further thought about the teaching-research link and its development, in particular in the post-1992 universities and encourage others to explore how to develop and enhance the link in their departments and disciplines. To assist those that wish to take this forward there are resources (including guidelines, bibliographies, links to other websites, publications from the project and examples of practice) on the LINK website.

Summary of the analysis of LINK focus groups held in 2000

OBU-SOA* OBU-SOP* SHU UWE Wmin Average
What does it mean to link teaching and research? 32 28 24 16 38 28
It’s part of the academic identity/ labour 8 13 21 18 6 15
It’s part of an academic’s scholarly activity <1 1 0 8 0 2
Brings benefits to staff by being at cutting edge <1 0 0 3 0 1
Brings benefits to staff as staff are also learners <1 1 0 1 0 <1
Discussion relating to student learning (benefit to student, use of student in LTR etc) 18 12 4 7 25 13
Discussion relating to when it can be achieved (hard at undergrad., easier at postgrad.) 3 6 9 7 13 8
Discussions relating to discipline issue of consultancy versus research 10 8 5 12 4 8
Discussions relating to discipline issues in general 9 4 1 5 5 5
Discussions relating to discipline issue of the influence of professional bodies 2 3 4 4 2 3
Curriculum 2 0 1 7 <1 2
Effect of RAE and funding 5 5 3 4 2 4
Old-new university issues 2 2 2 4 3 3
Other issues/text not assigned 8 18 28 4 2 12
* in 2002 these schools were joined to become the School of the Built Environment
(percentage of text assigned to categories). Derived from Durning (2002)

Table 1. Summary of the analysis of LINK focus groups held in 2000

Fifteen Points from LINK.

A LINK project report, January 2003.

Retrieved from the worldwide web at: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/LTRC/about.htm on April 13th, 2004

Here are the ‘Fifteen Points from LINK’ which highlight conclusions and findings from our work and indicate aspects of our work which resonate with other research on the link between teaching and research.

Context

1. The relationship between teaching and research is a key issue in higher education – in pedagogy, in funding, in differentiating the character of universities from other teaching and learning institutions. The territory and the research evidence in this area are both controversial and contested.

2. The innovative contribution of LINK to these debates has been to conceptualise and explore the impact of institutional and organisational structures on the form and dynamics of the relationship between teaching and research. LINK adds to other critical parameters of the debate such as: the activity of scholarship and its application to research and teaching; the role of academics and the extent to which research and teaching are convergent or divergent activities; the value of research in the process of student learning.

Working Concepts

3. Concurring with other research, we conclude that learning provides the conceptual link between teaching and research: research is the process of learning for academics – teaching is the promotion of learning for students.

4. In a knowledge-based society, research and consultancy skills are key attributes in vocational and professional fields like the built environment. Graduate professionals increasingly need core skills in managing, synthesising and deploying subject-based knowledge to derive solutions to real-world problems; integrating teaching with research helps to embed these cores skills.

5. Graduates with the skills and ability to conduct research in operational settings are more likely to have the capacity to formulate problem-solving solutions based on an awareness of where to find or collect evidence, how to critically test the reliability of that evidence and how to present the conclusions and findings.

6. Acquiring research and consultancy skills enhances graduate employability and provides graduates with the resources and confidence to understand and adapt to a society whose knowledge-base is fast changing. Strategic Issues in Integrating Research, Teaching and Learning

Strategic Issues in Integrating Teaching, Research and Learning

7. Integrating teaching and research does not usually happen automatically; it needs systematic action through change strategies at three levels:

  • institutional level policies and strategies for teaching, research, staffing and programme development /audit;
  • faculty/departmental level policies for staffing, workload planning, and managing teaching and research;
  • curriculum level – design, delivery and assessment and programme monitoring.

8. The academic department is perhaps the key level for focussed attention to developing and supporting the link. Here is where staff roles are most clearly defined and where teaching and research are most directly organised and potentially where they can most effectively be linked or remain in separate and even hostile worlds

9. Institutions can also play a key formative role in either supporting or blocking the links. Here a central issue is whether the research strategy is seen as in effect quite separate from the teaching agenda – or in part explicitly designed to support it .

The Curriculum and Students – Integrating Research, Teaching and Learning

10. Students can be motivated by and value research-led and research-based teaching; but often they are unaware of the potential benefits of that research and the learning process attached to it. Thus the benefits may not be realised in practice.

11. Research-based learning should take place throughout a programme – not just in specific ‘dedicated’ modules. The enhancement of knowledge and research skills should be an interactive process. In this way students will have a better critical understanding of the knowledge-base of their subject, its relationship to research inquiry, and the skills and tools of the research process.

12. The links between knowledge-production, teaching, learning and research require a reconceptualisation of the traditionally conceived relationship between teaching and research, and the role of the lecturer in this process. Too often the relationship between research and teaching is seen from the perspective of the teacher transmitting research. The focus needs to shift to the process of student learning and understanding supported by the lecturer’s knowledge of the research.

Teaching, Research and the Built Environment Disciplines

13. The different knowledge-base of disciplines impacts on both the methods and the characteristics of the way teaching and research are integrated. Thus vocational and professional areas like the built environment are more likely to be research-based rather than research-led. Professional practice and accreditation bodies tend to put more emphasis on the skills and aptitudes for using the findings of research than on the expertise to conduct research. They also place greater emphasis on the application of research-based knowledge than on research as a process of inquiry and knowledge development.

14. LINK shows that the Built Environment is a fertile subject area to explore the complex relationship between teaching and research. Its multi-disciplinarity and the diversity of the subject matter highlight:

  • contrasting modes of research: social sciences (e.g. planning) and the application of conceptual research; design subjects (e.g. urban design and architecture) and the application of abstract inquiry; technical subjects (eg construction and real estate management) and research as problem solving inquiry;
  • different conceptualisations of the activity and purposes of research and how it is communicated: from research as knowledge creation (e.g. research creating social and economic constructions of urban processes and dynamics) to research as knowledge application (e.g. policy evaluation for government)
  • different roles of research in the student learning experience and skills development (eg research-led or research-based learning, individual or group skills) The disciplinary setting has an impact on the knowledge-base of a subject and thus on the both the methods and the characteristics of the way teaching and research are integrated. Vocational and professional areas, like the built environment, are more likely to be research-based rather than research-led. The requirements of professional practice and accreditation bodies tend to emphasise the need for less ‘pure’ research skills and aptitudes.

Evaluation

15. Evaluating how integrated research-teaching-learning takes place can be discerned by: the design and content of the curricula and the extent to which it is underpinned by research expertise of staff and/or research-based inquiry; how learning outcomes are specified; how students learn and the extent to which they are taught mirrors research processes and develops skills and knowledge of research; how the research competence of students is assessed; the visibility of research activity in the department/faculty and in the context of teaching and students.

Table 2. Fifteen Points from LINK. A LINK project report, January 2003. Retrieved from the worldwide web at: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/LTRC/about.htm. on April 13th, 2004

Biography

Bridget Durning is the LINK Project Manager and Manager: Research and Consultancy in the School of the Built Environment. Before joining Oxford Brookes in 2000, Bridget spent over nine years working in environmental consultancy as a project manager with clients in the construction, surveying, financial and commercial sectors and spent two years as a specialist advisor to three local planning authorities in the north of England. Bridget’s background is originally in geology, in which she holds a PhD.

Marion Temple is a LINK Project Team Member and is Head of Professional and Academic Development in the School of the Built Environment. She has over thirty years experience of teaching in higher education in the UK. Originally an economist, she became interested in the economics of property markets and the pressures upon successful local economies, such as Oxford. Her interest in learning and teaching has led to the authorship of her current book Studying the Built Environment (Palgrave, 2004).

Contact Details

School of the Built Environment,

Oxford Brookes University,

Gipsy Lane,

Oxford, OX3 0BP.

Telephone +44 (0)1865 483430/483486

Fax +44 (0)1865 483410

Email: bdurning@brookes.ac.uk ; mtemple@brookes. ac.uk .

References:

Boyer, E. (1990), Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate, Princeton, New Jersey: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Boyer, E. (1994), ‘Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities for a New Century’, in The National Commission on Education in Universities in the 21st Century.

Boyer Commission (1998), Re-inventing Undergraduate Education: Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, State University of New York, Stony Brook.

Brew (2001), The Nature of Research, London: Routledge Falmer.

Dent, P. and Temple, M. (2003), ‘A Linked Interaction: Delivering Learning, Research and Practice in Real Estate’, in Building the LINK Conference Proceedings, pp. 100 – 114.

Durning, B. (2002), Results of Focus Group Analysis
. Retrieved from the World Wide web at http://www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/LTRC/documents/​reports/report-review focus groups.doc on April 13th, 2004.

Durning, B. and Jenkins, A. (in submission), Teaching/Research Relations in Departments and Disciplines; Perspectives of Built Environment Academics.

Gibbons, M., et al (1994), The New Production of Knowledge, London: Sage.

Gibbs, G. (2002), ‘Institutional Strategies for Linking Research and Teaching’, Exchange, 3, pp. 8-11. Available from the world wide web at http://www.exchange.ac.uk/issue3.asp.

Griffiths, R. (in press), ‘Knowledge Production and the Research-Teaching Nexus: the Case of the Built Environment Disciplines’, Studies in Higher Education.

Jenkins, A., et al (2003), Re-shaping Higher Education: Linking Teaching and Research, London: Kogan Page/ SEDA.

Project LINK (2000), ‘Briefing Note for LINK Focus Groups’, A LINK project report: November. Retrieved from the worldwide web at www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/​LTRC/documents/reports/​FGBrieftemp.htm on April 13th, 2004.

Project Link website, www.brookes.ac.uk/LINK

Temple, M. (forthcoming 2004), Studying the Built Environment, Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Webster, C. (2002), ‘Constructing the Teaching-Research Link in the Built Environment Disciplines’, Exchange, 3, pp. 15-16. Available from the world wide web at http://www.exchange.ac.uk/issue3.asp.

Zetter, R. (2002a), ‘Making the Departmental Link between Research and Teaching’, Exchange, 3, pp. 12-14. Available from the world wide web at http://www.exchange.ac.uk/issue3.asp.

Zetter R. (2002b), ‘Developing the Link – Enhancing the Relationship between Teaching and Research in the Built Environment Disciplines’, Housing Studies Association Autumn Conference, Oxford. Retrieved from the world wide web at www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/planning/LTRC/​documents/papers/​HousingEducation2002.doc on September 17th, 2003.

 

Bridget Durning
Bridget Durning is the LINK Project Manager and Manager: Research and Consultancy in the School of the Built Environment. Before joining Oxford Brookes in 2000, Bridget spent over nine years working in environmental consultancy as a project manager with clients in the construction, surveying, financial and commercial sectors and spent two years as a specialist advisor to three local planning authorities in the north of England. Bridget’s background is originally in geology, in which she holds a PhD.
Marion Temple
Marion Temple is a LINK Project Team Member and is Head of Professional and Academic Development in the School of the Built Environment. She has over thirty years experience of teaching in higher education in the UK. Originally an economist, she became interested in the economics of property markets and the pressures upon successful local economies, such as Oxford. Her interest in learning and teaching has led to the authorship of her current book Studying the Built Environment (Palgrave, 2004).

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